Social media, maker culture, the proliferation of sensors, and even the market crash are merely local phenomena in a much larger shift. What unfolds in the next few years will determine the shape of the global economy for the next half-century and will force a profound rethink of economic theory.
Her association with Somerville, interrupted only by government service as an economist from tocontinued for the rest of her life.
She was a lecturer in Philosophy, —50, fellow and tutor, —69, senior research fellow, —88, and honorary fellow, — She spent many hours there in debate with G. Anscombewho persuaded her that non-cognitivism was misguided. She was appointed Griffin Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Los Angelesin and taught there untildividing her time between the United States and England.
Contrary to common belief, Foot was not a founder of Oxfam and joined the organization about 6 years after its foundation. She was an atheist. Foot and at one time shared a flat with the novelist Iris Murdoch.
The essays "Moral Arguments" and "Moral Beliefs", in particular, were crucial in overturning the rule of non-cognitivism in analytic approaches to ethical theory in the preceding decades. The non-cognitivist approach may already be found in Humebut it was given its most influential analytic formulations in works of A.
Stevensonand R. This sort of analysis of "thin" ethical concepts was tied to a special partitioning account of more concrete or "thick" concepts, such as "cowardly", "cruel", or "gluttonous.
Because of the particular way she approached the defense of the cognitive and truth-evaluable character of moral judgment, these essays were crucial in bringing the question of the rationality of morality to the fore. They differ from thought such as it would be done on a Tuesday or it would take about three gallons of paint, not by the admixture of what she considers to be any non-factual, attitude-expressing "moral" element, but by the fact that human beings have reasons not to do things that are cowardly or cruel.
Her lifelong devotion to this question appears in all periods of her work.
The rationality of morality[ edit ] "Why be moral? In "Moral Beliefs," she had argued that the received virtues — courage, temperance, justice, and so on — are cultivated rationally, and that it was thus rational to act in accordance with them.
The "thick" ethical concepts that she emphasized without using this expression in her defense of the cognitive character of moral judgment were associated with such rationally cultivated traits, i.
The crucial point was that the difference between "just action" and "action performed on Tuesday" for example was not a matter of "emotive" meaning, as in Ayer and Stevenson, or a secret imperatival feature, as in Hare. Although everyone has reason to cultivate courage, temperance and prudence, whatever the person desires or values, still, the rationality of just and benevolent acts must, she thought, turn on contingent motivations.
Although many found the thesis shocking, on her then account, it is meant to be, in a certain respect, inspiring: The question what we have most reason to do, is tied to the idea of the good working of practical reason. This, in turn, is tied to the idea of the species of an animal as providing a measure of good and bad in the operations of its parts and faculties.
This idea is developed in the light of a conception of animal kinds or species as implicitly containing "evaluative" content, which may be criticized on contemporary biological grounds; although it is arguable, even on that basis, that it is very deeply entrenched in human cognition.
In our case, what makes for a well-constituted practical reason, depends on the fact that we are human beings characterized by certain possibilities of emotion and desire, a certain anatomy, neurological organization, and so forth.
Once this step is made, it becomes possible to argue for the rationality of moral considerations in a new way. Humans begin with the conviction that justice is a genuine virtue.
Thus, the conviction that the well-constituted human practical reason operates with considerations of justice, means that taking account of other people in that sort of way is "how human beings live together.
There is nothing incoherent in the thought that practical calculation that takes account of others and their good might characterize some kind of rational and social animal. Similarly, of course, there is nothing incoherent in the idea of a form of rational life within which such considerations are alien; where they can only be imposed by damaging and disturbing the individual person.
There is nothing analytic about the rationality of justice and benevolence. Rather, human conviction that justice is a virtue and that considerations of justice are genuine reasons for action, is the conviction that the kind of rational being that we are, namely, human beings, is of the first type.
There is no reason to think such a kind of rational animality is impossible, so there is no reason to suspect that considerations of justice are frauds. Of course, it might be suggested that this is precisely not the case, that human beings are of the second kind, and thus that the justice and benevolence we esteem are artificial and false.
Foot would hold that considerations of machismo and lady-likeness are artificial and false; they are matters of "mere convention," which tend to put one off of the main things.
That being how it is with justice, was the position of the Platonic "immoralists" Callicles and Thrasymachus, and that being how it is with benevolence, was the view of Friedrich Nietzsche. In the case of Callicles and Nietzsche, this apparently is to be shown by claiming that justice and benevolence, respectively, can be inculcated only by warping the emotional apparatus of the individual.
She employs exactly the Nietzschean form of argument against certain forms of femininity, for example, or exaggerated forms of acceptance of etiquette.
Justice and benevolence, she claims, however, "suit" human beings, and there is no reason to accept the critique of Callicles or Nietzsche in this case. Only once did she move across the boundary into aesthetics.
This was in her British Academy Hertz Memorial Lecture, Art and Morality, in which certain contrasts are drawn between moral and aesthetic judgements. Likewise, she appears never to have taken a professional interest in political philosophy. Geoffrey Thomas, of Birkbeck College, London, recalls approaching Foot inwhen he was a postgraduate student at Trinity College, Oxford, to ask if she would read a draft paper on the relation of ethics to politics.Ocean Acidification Essays - One very critical, damaging environmental problem caused by society and technology is known as ocean acidification or “OA” for short.
When carbon dioxide is absorbed by seawater, chemical reactions occur that reduce seawater pH, carbonate ion concentration, and saturation states of biologically important calcium minerals.
On March sea ice extent in the Arctic reached million km² and so the end of Arctic sea ice growth had in fact not been reached. The plunge in the mean temperature north of 80°N to °C can be seen in the plot by the DMI, and so a growth in sea ice was expected.
After an increase.
|Ice-Free Arctic Fantasies Melting Away As Temperatures Plummet…Sea Ice Mass Grows Impressively||The most prominent phenomena affecting oceans today is increased acidification, which worsens day-to-day and is likely to cause permanent damage. This increasing acidification is attributed to one main cause:|
|Coral reef ecosystem stressors in the U.S. Virgin Islands||Lawrence Solomon Calls to action Essays and research supporting the idea that global warming poses a clear threat to humanity, that it is largely caused by human activity, and that solutions to the problems of climate change lie within human reach.|
Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current. They provide a crucial source of food to many large aquatic organisms, such as fish and whales.. These organisms include bacteria, archaea, algae, protozoa and drifting or floating animals that inhabit—for example—the pelagic zone of oceans, seas.
'This is the book oceanic scholars have been waiting for. Five oceans, six seas, eleven top scholars and a dozen magisterial essays that map the contemporary state of oceanic historiographies.
Essays and research supporting the idea that global warming poses a clear threat to humanity, that it is largely caused by human activity, and that solutions to the problems of .
According to futurist (and Long Now board member) Paul Saffo, the "new economy” anticipated in the late s is arriving late and in utterly unexpected ways.