History[ edit ] It has been proposed that there is a particular link between creativity and mental illness e.
Mania can present with varying levels of mood disturbance, ranging from euphoria that is associated with "classic mania" to dysphoria and irritability. The core symptom of mania involves an increase in energy of psychomotor activity.
Mania can also present with increased self-esteem or grandiosityrapid speech, the subjective feeling of rapid thoughts, disinhibited social behavior, or impulsivity. Unlike mania, hypomania is not always associated with impaired functioning. Hypomania may feel good to some persons who experience it, though most people who experience hypomania state that the stress of the experience is very painful.
Even when family and friends recognize mood swingsthe individual will often deny that anything is wrong.
These symptoms include delusions and hallucinations. A major depressive episode persists for at least two weeks, and may result in suicide if left untreated. Mixed affective state In bipolar disorder, mixed state is a condition during which symptoms of both mania and depression occur simultaneously.
Associated features of bipolar disorder Associated features are clinical phenomena that often accompany the disorder but are not part of the diagnostic criteria.
In adults with the condition, bipolar disorder is often accompanied by changes in cognitive processes and abilities.
For bipolar disorder type I, the rate at which identical twins same genes will both have bipolar disorder type I concordance is estimated at around 40 percent, compared to about 5 percent in fraternal twins.
There is overlap with major unipolar depression and if this is also counted in the co-twin the concordance with bipolar disorder rises to 67 percent in identical twins and 19 percent in fraternal twins.
Conditions like these and injuries include stroketraumatic brain injuryHIV infectionmultiple sclerosisporphyriaand rarely temporal lobe epilepsy. Meta-analyses of structural MRI studies in bipolar disorder report decreased volume in the left rostral anterior cingulate cortex ACCfronto-insular cortexventral prefrontal cortex, and claustrum.
Increases have been reported in the volume of the lateral ventriclesglobus pallidussubgenual anterior cingulateand amygdala as well as in the rates of deep white matter hyperintensities. On the other hand, pretreatment hyperactivity in the amygdala is reduced post-treatment but is still increased relative to controls, suggesting that it is a trait marker.
During attentional tasks and resting, mania is associated with decreased orbitofrontal cortex activity, while depression is associated with increased resting metabolism. Consistent with affective disorders due to lesionsmania and depression are lateralized in vPFC dysfunction, with depression primarily being associated with the left vPFC, and mania the right vPFC.
Abnormal vPFC activity, along with amygdala hyperactivity is found during euthymia as well as in healthy relatives of those with bipolar, indicating possible trait features.
There is evidence supporting an association between early-life stress and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis HPA axis leading to its overactivation, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder.
This results in decreased dopamine transmission characteristic of the depressive phase. Increased dopaminergic activity has been hypothesized in manic states due to the ability of dopamine agonists to stimulate mania in people with bipolar disorder.
Low plasma GABA levels on both sides of the mood spectrum have been found.Famously Sir Winston Churchill suffered from manic depression and referred to his low moods as his ‘Black dog.’ Bit of trivia for those of that persuasion: this particular photograph, perhaps the most famous of Churchill was taken by the great *Karsh of Ottawa.
Get the latest health news, diet & fitness information, medical research, health care trends and health issues that affect you and your family on vetconnexx.com Slow Death and Overdoses Many people wonder if the use of alcohol and drugs is a way of committing suicide by "slow death." Most persons who abuse these substances are taking them chiefly as a kind of self-medication to reduce their stress.
Learning Objectives. This is an intermediate level course. After completing this course, mental health professionals will be able to: Describe the nature of defiant, oppositional, or .
People and ideas systems As outlined by Andrew Roberts of Middlesex University, London. Introductory sketches of the ideas of theorists, linked to Andrew Roberts' book Social Science History and the Society and Science History vetconnexx.comped from a course document "Outline of the theorists we could cover" (February ), the web page was created offline before My Story Growing up, I found myself in a near-constant cold.
My nose was almost always runny. I remember at one point thinking to myself that it seemed I had had a cold for almost ten years.